Oligospermia refers to a medical condition in which a man has a low sperm count in his semen. “Oligo” means few, and “aspermia” refers to sperm. It is a common cause of male infertility and can make it more difficult for a couple to conceive a child.
Oligospermia can be categorized into different degrees based on the severity of the condition:
- Mild Oligospermia
- Moderate Oligospermia
- Severe Oligospermia
Now given a brief of these types of oligospermia:
- Mild Oligospermia: This refers to a condition in which the sperm count is lower than usual but not severely decreased. Oligospermia for men itself refers to a low sperm count, typically defined as having fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen. It is one of the factors that can contribute to male infertility.
Mild oligospermia treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve lifestyle modifications, such as improving diet and exercise habits, avoiding exposure to toxins, and managing any underlying health conditions.
There are various causes of mild oligospermia, including hormonal imbalances, testicular problems, genetic abnormalities, infections, exposure to environmental toxins, and lifestyle factors which includes smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, or obesity)
- Moderate Oligospermia: It refers to a condition in which a man has a lower-than-normal sperm count. In this case, the sperm count may range between 5-10 million per milliliter. In this condition, the chances of achieving pregnancy reduce as the lower sperm count can affect fertility.
It has various causes such as hormonal imbalances, testicular factors, Genetic abnormalities, Lifestyle factors, and environmental factors.
- Severe Oligospermia: It refers to a medical condition in which a man has an extremely low sperm count in his semen. In severe oligospermia, sperm count ranges below 5 million sperm/ml.
This condition is caused due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, testicular issues, genetic factors, infections, and lifestyle factors
Severe oligospermia treatment includes various options, that are:
- Assisted reproductive techniques
- Donor sperm
Having a low sperm count can significantly reduce the chances of natural conception, although it doesn’t mean a woman can’t conceive. It’s important to note that if a man has oligospermia, his problem is sperm count which is just one factor that affects male fertility, and other parameters such as sperm motility(movement) and morphology(shape) also play a role.
There is one more condition of oligospermia, known as Organic Oligospermia.
Organic Oligospermia, also known as oligozoospermia, refers to a condition in which the semen of an individual contains a lower-than-lower number of sperm cells. This condition is considered organic when the cause can be attributed to a specific physical or medical issue rather than a temporary or reversible factor. Organic oligospermia can affect male fertility and make it more challenging for couples to conceive.
Some common causes of organic oligospermia include:
- Hormonal imbalances
- Genetic abnormalities
- Testicular trauma
- Exposure to toxins
- Medications and treatments